Advance Regeneration of Norway Spruce and Scots Pine in Hemiboreal Forests in Latvia


Continuous cover forestry (CCF) aims to emulate small natural disturbances and take advantage of natural regeneration. To implement these management practices successfully, knowledge of advance regeneration under the canopy in different conditions is crucial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of stand inventory parameters of canopy layer (age, basal area, height, and density) on the probability and density of advance regeneration of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in hemiboreal forests in Latvia. The data were obtained from the National Forest Inventory, from a total of 879 plots. In the study, only Norway spruce or Scots pine dominated stands were used and the sampled stand age ranged from 21 to 218 years. The probability of advance regeneration differed between stands dominated by Scots pine versus Norway spruce. The probability and density of the advance regeneration of Norway spruce were positively linked to increased stand age, whereas the probability of the advance regeneration of Scots pine was negatively linked to the basal area of the stand. In stands dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine on mesic soils, the advance regeneration of Norway spruce has a high density, whereas the advance regeneration of Scots pine is sporadic and scarce.